Zach Horseshoe

How to Make a Motor
Materials Needed:

* Horseshoe magnet
* Cork (3 or 4 inches long)
* Plastic knitting needle
* Small insulated copper wire (bell wire)
* Six-volt battery
* Wood base (about 12 x 4 inches)
* 2 metal strips (about 5 x _ inches)
* Tape
* 2 tacks
* 2 screws
* hammer and nails
* pliers

Directions

1. Use the hammer and nail to punch a hole a half inch from each end of the two metal strips.

2. Bend one end of each strip about one inch from each end.

3. Use the two screws and mount the metal strips to the wooden base about an inch from each end of the 4 inch side of the wood. Make sure the bended part of the metal is facing in. The two holes at the top will now be facing each other. The needle will go through the holes. Make sure about an inch of the needle will stick out from each side before you mount the metal strips.

4. Insert the needle through one of the holes in the metal strip and push it through the center of the cork. Move the cork to the middle.

5. Wrap wire around the cork about 50 times to form a coil. Make sure to leave about 3 inches of lead on each end.

6. Remove about _ inch of insulation from the end and tape them to opposite sides of the needle. Do not let the bare wires touch each other and don't cover them with tape. The bare ends will be electrical contacts for the two wires from the battery.

7. Push the two tacks part way into the wood base below the contacts (bare ends of wire).

8. Remove about 1/2 inch of insulation from another wire and bend it up from one of the tacks so that the bare end lays across the bare wire from the coil.

9. Hold it in place with a tack.

10. Repeat number 8 with another wire but have it lay across the other bare wire from the coil.

11. Mount the magnet on the base so that the two ends of the magnet stick up on each side of the coil.

12. Remove about 1/2 inch of insulation from the free ends of the wires held by the tacks. Then connect them to the battery terminals.

13. Give the cork a spin with your hand. The motor should now spin by itself!

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Lab report:
Horseshoe Magnet Generator
I am doing a report on a generator in science class. My generator is going to be a
horseshoe generator. First of all you need a block of wood about 12x4 inches. Then you take
two pieces of wood about 5 inches long and make one hole in the middle of the front side
about half an inch down. Then take a wooden dowel and put a cork through the center of the
dowel. Then insert that in the holes of the wood which have been nailed to the wood. Then
wrap copper wire around the cork about 50 to 70 times ,make sure you leave about 3 inches at
the end of each wire. Sand each end of the copper wires and tape the ends to opposite sides of
the dowel. After doing that push two tacks half way into the board. Then, put the bare wires
under the tack, so it will hold the wires in place. Now, mount the horseshoe magnet so that the
two poles are on both sides of the coil. If you do not have a horseshoe magnet you can
improvise buy using two to four magnets glued to two different blokes of wood. The blocks of
wood have to be on opposite sides of the coiled wire. Also you have to make sure the magnets
are facing north to south. Connect the wires to a 9v battery. That is how you make a horseshoe
magnet generator.
Now I will tell how this generator works and operates. The generator is quite simple
actually. It works by the north and south poles of the magnet. The cork that is wrapped in wire
is like a Rotor in a motor. In a motor there are field magnets which in this case is the horseshoe
magnet. Also, in a motor there is an axel which is our knitting needle. The axle is connected to
the rotor. The rotor is the cork wrapped in wire. The rotor moves because of the magnets. In
my generator the cork is moved by the magnet. The north and south poles react with the rotor,
then causes it to spin. If you have ever took a magnet and put the south pole to the other south pole.
What do they do? They repel. That is what the rotor does. The brushes in a motor are used to hook the
battery to the commutator. A commutator is the part of a motor that is the electrical switch that
changes the poles of the magnet. In my generator the brushes are the tacks. The commutator is the
tacks as well. The wires from the battery and the wires from the cork are connected by the tacks. That is
how my generator work and is made. I do not have much experience but, I would probably be able to
build this. I think other people who read this would probably be able to build this and get the just of
how a generator or a motor works.
Here is our hypothesis. We think that the generator will not make enough power to power up a hot plate and boil water. The generator only gives about .05 to.10 volts.
Here is a picture of our generator:

We had some keen observations. One thing we noticed was that we had the magnets
attached to pieces of wood. When the magnets were setup like that they were not conducting
enough power. When we moved the magnets closer and added more magnets we got a few
volts. We were not getting any volts before we moved the magnets closer. Another,
observation we had was the method of turning the dowel. We first had just the dowel. The
dowel alone did not spin fast at all. So, we then decided to make a crank. Well, we took a small
gear and drilled the center so it would fit on the dowel. Then we took another gear and drilled a
whole in the wood base that holds the dowel and put the axel to the gear and put it in the hole
we drilled. Finally we took a nail and put it in the bottom gear which it then would become a
handel. For a better idea look at the exampledown below:

The last observation we had because we had three of them was the coil. At first we had regular
Insulated wire. The insulated wire we believe did not conduct electricity. So, we then took off
the insulated wire and replaced it with copper wire. The copper wire worked much better and
it conducted electricity . These were the observations we had and that was how many we had.
Here is our conclusions. Our hypothesis was right. The power given by our generator is
not enough to power a hot plate. This project worked well besides the whole voltage and
power part. Everything worked good except the bare wires that had to touch the wires on
the cork. The wires had to be held in place. If we had more time we probably would have put
more corks wrapped in copper wire and more magnets. So overall it would be much bigger and
more power definitely. What we learned from this project was how a motor works and how to
build a generator. That is all of our conclusions.
This project is a decent to build and quite simple. It generates a small amount of
electricity and voltage. It also teaches you a lot about generators.

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