King Red Cohort

Alyssa Cowan

Our Members

Vinager and Baking Soda Pages

Joshua Philbrick:

I am great with spelling and grammar. If the group makes a spelling error, I can often correct it.
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Josh Philbrick 3/4/09
The concept of plasma is recent, but this is only because it doesn’t naturally exist on earth. It needs 100,000oC to exist, and no man can survive in that temperature; it isn’t natural on earth anyways. When matter is a solid, it stays in a shape. When it’s a liquid, it moves freely, but it’s visible. When its gas, it’s not visible. But plasma has so much heat; the electrons stay separate from the nucleus. Nothing can live in that heat, but, thankfully, it is only in space, or contained.

In the stars, plasma exists, and the heat is so high, nuclear fission is possible. Nuclear fission is when 2 elements collide and make a heavier element. In the sun, the heaviest element is Oxygen, but in other big stars, Iron can be made. How is an element like Gold made, with the heaviest star element being Iron? In a supernova, the heat can become a disintegrating 1,000,000,000oC, or over 2,120,000,000oF. This is when elements as heavy, or even heavier, than ununoctium can be made “A supernova provides enough energy to create the heaviest of elements.” (Hall, 106). So, in a way, everything came from a gigantic supernova!

Plasma not only exists in stars, but very rarely exists anywhere else! The reason that the sun radiates heat is PLASMA! This is because of nuclear fission, when elements clash and the new atom gives off a huge amount of heat. This heat will reach earth in 8 minutes, where we will feel it and see it. Without this heat, liquids couldn’t exist, and life on earth would seize to exist.

The reason plasma doesn’t exist on earth is that the atmosphere blocks most of the heat. If it blocked too much, we would freeze, and if it blocked too little, we would burn.

P1: Glanz, James. “Plasma overview” plasma overview 2004 <>
P2: chemical building blocks: book: Hall, prentice. Chemical building blocks. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Science Explorer, 2002 Rader, Andrew. “Sun” Sun 1997
P4: Rader, Andrew. “Matter: Plasmas” Plasmas 1997
Temp. text end

Erik mcCarthy:

I am great at teamwork. I work with my group all the way to get the job done instead of being lazy.

Kaylie McDonald:

I am a leader when that role needs to be taken, and I am an organized person; I love working in groups if everyone is fun and curious.

Eric Mullane:

I will help my cohort a lot and provide them with laughter. I will be kind and generous and not yell at my group members when they make a mistake.

My research topic is on the elements that make up and help the human body. There are many elements and substances in the human body. The percentages for the mass of the elements in our bodies are: 65% Oxygen, 18% Carbon, 10% Hydrogen, 3% Nitrogen, 1.5% Calcium, 1.2% Phosphorus, 0.2% Potassium, Sulfur, and Chlorine, 0.1% Sodium, 0.05% Magnesium, 3.8g Iron for men, 2.3g Iron for women, 0.05% Cobalt, Copper, and Zinc, and 0.01% Selenium and Fluorine. Before this project begun, I didn’t even know that half of those elements were in the human body. It is just mind boggling.

The gaseous elements are Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Chlorine, and Fluorine. Oxygen is the most important because it is 65% of the mass in the human body. We need Oxygen to breathe and survive. Without it, there would be no way anyone could survive. It is vital to us as human beings. Carbon comes in second with 18% of the mass in the human body. Almost all parts of the human body are made up of large amounts of Carbon. According to, “Without Carbon, our bodies would just be a big pile of loose atoms with no way to be built into a person.” Hydrogen and 2 Oxygen’s form together and make H2O which everyone knows is water. Water makes up more than half of the human body.

One element in particular will help the immune system. That element is Iron. Iron is definitely an important element in the human body. Not only does it help digest certain things in the food we eat and help the immune system, but it also makes the tendons and ligaments that hold our bones together. Without it, our bodies would be a big pile of skin, muscle and fat with a pile of bones in the middle. It truly is an amazing element.

Then, there are elements that help our bones, teeth, blood, and our brain. One of these elements is Boron. Boron might seem useless and unimportant, but in small amounts, it keeps us alive. Without small amounts of Boron, our bones would be brittle, weak, and they would fall apart. Aluminum is also an important element. Aluminum was thought to be useless as well, but scientists discovered that it is linked to Alzheimer’s disease, a disease that causes memory loss. Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium all help bone and teeth structure except for Magnesium which only helps bone structure. Sodium, Potassium, and Chlorine are all major electrolytes (any substance containing free ions that acts as an electrically conductive medium) of blood and extracellular fluid except for Potassium which only helps blood and intercellular fluid.

It is amazing what you can learn by just going online or reading a book. This was a really big learning experience for me. Now, I know a lot more about the human body than I did before this project. It was very fun researching for my topic. I also learned how to properly write notes on notecards. I just hope that the people who read this learn exactly what I learned.

1. Uthman, Ed MD. “Elements of Body”
2. Berkely. “Elements”

3. Mineral Information Institute “The Role of Elements in Life Process”

Alyssa Cowan:

I am a great artist, and an excellent builder. I am an out of the box thinker, and an outgoing/ Social Person. I sometimes pay attention to details.

Isabelle Guerrier:

I am organized and I love to have fun. I pay attention to details and make sure I am doing my work.

Kam Boutin:

I am good at building stuff, and using technology.
Kam's page

Baking Soda and Vinger Challenge

Group 1: Kam, Erik, Catherine, Kaylie

We concluded that 28.99 grams of vinegar and 1.01 grams of baking soda.

After 4 tests our group concluded that 40g of vinegar and 10g baking soda would make the ping pong ball go the highest. Our first test, 25g baking soda and 25g vinegar, went to the height of 38.5cm. The next we tested 30g of baking soda and 20g of vinegar, and reached only 20cm. We then realized that the more vinegar we had the higher the ball would go. But we decided to keep with the experiment plan instead of making up another combination. So we tested 30g vinegar and 20g baking soda. We reached 30cm, but here we were rushed, so we skipped the next test we planned, which was 40g baking soda and 10g vinegar. We went right to 5th Trial, 10g vinegar and 40g baking soda which brought us to 52cm. So we concluded that 40g of vinegar and 10g of baking soda was the best. None of our hypothesis were correct, but Catherine was the closest, with her guess of 20g baking soda and 30g vinegar. We didn't test any other ratios.

Group 2: Alyssa, Isabelle, Eric, Josh

we will need:
1.01g Baking Soda
28.99g Vinegar

Temperature Time water falls observations
Hot __ Seconds
Warm __ Seconds
Cold __ Seconds

RESULTS: My results were for the hot water rings was 2.45 seconds and the observation for the hot water rings are started out fast and got slower and slower. Also the results for the warm water rings were 1.01 seconds and observing the warm water rings was it started out slow and got faster. For the last one is the cold water and that was 1.22 seconds and the observations for the cold water was during the whole process of my experiment was that the cold water rings stayed the same the entire time.

DISCUSSION: My hypothesis was not correct. I did my experiment on water rings and I did research on what water ring temperature was supposed to hit first and the answer I got was cold water. When I did my experiment tons of times and the cold water didn’t seem to hit first. When I did my experiment for the last time the warm water ring hit first. What could have gone wrong is that I could have got the wrong temperature of water each time I did my experiment. It was very hard to get the write temperature of the water each time. Also sometimes with the tinfoil that I used blocked a lot of the water coming out to reach it’s point. I could have tip the jar to make the water come out like it was supposed to and I did and it worked differently then it was supposed to instead it coming out faster it broke the tinfoil ruining my whole experiment for me to get the right information. Also for one of my experiment was to use a ice cube but I didn’t have one so I just had to use the water that I had so that could have messed up my experiment a little bit. For the water jug that it was going into I had to guess on ho much water and what temperature that the water was supposed to be. So that could have also messed up my experiment cause I used the same temperature water as one of the jars had so that probably messed up my experiment making the warm water hit the bottom first instead of the cold water that was supposed to hit the bottom first.

I Susan B Anthony am Innovations most influential person because I strategize for women’s suffrage/ voting rights for women. I was determined and didn’t quit on what I believed in. I worked full time to gain respect for women’s rights.

I was born Feb. 15,1820 into a family that believed in the Quaker religion. This taught me to believe to help others. I lived in Adams Massachusetts. One of my friends Elizabeth Cady Santon inspired me to join women’s rights movement in 1852. (“ Biography of Susan B Anthony”) In 1852 women didn’t have the right to vote and I believed that women should have the right to vote.

While I did women’s voting rights I helped ex-slaves go to school well as more enforced drinking laws. Fighting for women’s rights my 3 sisters and other women got arrested for trying to vote. Trying to get equal treatment of boys and girls. That’s why I am innovations most influential person.

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