Tori S Reserch Paper

Chemical Reaction to make soap
How did the colonial people make soap? How did people nowadays make soap? Soap is made of the element’s sodium and potassium. An element is a substance of carbon, or neon. An element makes up the periodic table; there is an element of every substance of the periodic table. The difference between solid and liquid soap is the amount of alkali. The chemical reaction needed to create/make soap is, the fatty acids (acid) combine with the alkali (base), which the process to use is water and heat. An acid has properties different then an acid that tastes sour. A base has properties that take bitter and feels slippery. The alkali in the reaction will separate from the fats from the fatty acid.
Back in the colonial times soap wasn't manufactured like it is today. People in the colonial times gathered ashes to put into a bin. It has the same chemical reaction as always, with an acid and a base, and heat and water, by burning the ashes with the hot water. After you mix the burned ashes and the lye, then boil the mixture to make soap. Colonists then pour alkali into a bin to let it harden. Alkali is any various ether more or less active base. Lye is a solution made of potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide.
Manufactured soaps came out in the later nineteenth century. Unlike in the colonial days, they used animal fat, but now we use oils. For example, for Castile soap we use vegetable oil. Another example is for Brarner's soap we use hemp oil, and some jojoba oil. There is an hot and cold process of making soap nowadays. The cold process involves mixing oil, lye, fragrance with color dye, mixing it with a stick blender, after they pour the soap into a soap tubs. The liquid is very warm while hardening. For the hot process they used the same ingredients, but they mixed them with a crock pot, with constant stirring. Lye back then was from ashes, but nowadays it is from a combination of chemicals.
Bibliography

Source 1: Frank David V., Little John G., Miller Steve. Chemical Interactions. Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Education, Inc., 2005
Source 2: Ellis, Marietta. “Fine Handcrafted soap by The Soap Factory”. Colonial
Soap Making, Its History and Techniques
http://www.alcasoft.com/soapfact/history.html

Source 3: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soap
Source 4: http://www.soapmakingfun.com/making-homemade-soap.shtml

Source 5: (2003-2009) http://www.ineed2know.org/products/soapmaking.htm

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